The Power of Perspectives

The Canadian Bar Association

Yves Faguy


Where did all the women go?

By Yves Faguy November 20, 2012 20 November 2012

After posting this departure memo sent by a former junior associate (and mother) at Clifford Chance, Paul Campos does his own math and concludes:

There were 55,063 more JD students at ABA law schools in 2011 than 1971. 59,665 more women were enrolled as JD students in ABA law schools in 2011 than in 1971, while 4,632 fewer men were enrolled as JD students in ABA law schools in 2011 than in 1971. Holding everything else constant, if the gender ratio between men and women law students had remained the same over the past 40 years there would have been about 86,141 people enrolled as JD students in ABA law schools in 2011, and about 24,498 people would have graduated from those schools. This number of graduates is approximately 12% higher than the total number of new jobs for lawyers (21,880) the BLS estimates will become available on average per year for lawyers between 2010 and 2020. Clearly, the fact that law schools have produced an enormous oversupply of people with law degrees over the course of the last generation has an extremely significant gender component. Note that there’s all sorts of evidence that egalitarian gender practices in regard to law school admissions have had a remarkably muted effect in regard to making law less of a male-dominated profession (For example, 35 years after women started going to law school in numbers not much smaller than men, 85% of the partners and 95% of the managing partners at large law firms are men).

Which leads Campos to ask this question:

Have law schools managed to expand far beyond the actual economic demand for law degrees in large part because of an always unstated and usually unconscious assumption that comparatively large numbers of women law graduates would drop out of the profession within a few years of graduation?

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"The US border has been breached for Canadian law firms"

By Yves Faguy November 15, 2012 15 November 2012

National caught up with Jordan Furlong this week to discuss the impact of recent mergers involving Norton Rose, FMC and Fasken Martineau on Canadian firms:

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The pro-life movement's new approach

By Yves Faguy November 14, 2012 14 November 2012

Charlie Gillis explains how the pro-life movement is changing its tactics in advocating for fetal rights:

A pivotal moment came last May, when representatives from the Association for Reformed Political Action, a national Christian advocacy group, approached Vancouver-based activist Mike Schouten about running an initiative to build support for fetal protection legislation. Schouten, 36, is a former Christian Heritage Party candidate with a history of backing hardline conservative causes (including limits on Muslim immigration). He also has a knack for teasing rational arguments out of emotional issues. The result was, an online campaign using social media and electronic petitions to paint Canada’s lack of an abortion law as an international anomaly—an embarrassment not by the standards of social conservatives, but of liberal democracies like Sweden and France.[...]

The group’s approach is part of a broader strategy within the anti-abortion movement to win hearts and minds instead of lecturing or shaming. “Changing the culture” was the theme of a national conference held last month in Toronto by LifeCanada, the umbrella organization of pro-life groups across the country; it could be viewed as the coalition’s mission statement for the future. “The view of the pro-life movement for the last two decades has been that of a small minority outside the mainstream, older and probably religious fundamentalist,” says Lisa Smith, president of LifeCanada’s board, from her home in Drayton Valley, Alta. “But we can look around now and see young people taking up the cause. I think there’s a lot of optimism and encouragement.”

The effect has been to refurbish the image of the anti-abortion movement, and its newfound momentum has not escaped the attention of its pro-choice foes. Carolyn Egan, a veteran activist with the Abortion Rights Coalition of Canada (ARCC), says the pro-choice camp must now step up its response that even discussing a fetal rights law is the first step on a slippery slope. “Their strategy could be referred to as anti-choice by stealth,” she says. “Step by step, they want to create barriers for women to access abortions. But it’s true that the message is gaining some traction.”

Be that as it may, The National Post has a new poll out in which finds that a full 60 percent of Canadians say that abortion should always be legal, without restriction.That's up from 51 percent in February.  And yes, it probably has something to do with this vote.


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Using counsel's submissions without attribution

By Yves Faguy November 13, 2012 13 November 2012

An interesting case was heard today at the SCC, with Osler’s Mahmud Jamal representing the CBA as intervenor. In Cojocaru v. BC Women's Hospital et al, the justices are considering a judge’s duties in giving attribution when writing reasons for judgment.

Briefly, the trial judge found in favour of a child born severely brain damaged, who sued for medical malpractice. Trouble is he used, without attribution, the plaintiff’s written argument (321 paragraphs of a 368 paragraph judgment) and apparently neglected to address several arguments raised by the defendants. The CBA’s position on this is that the SCC should follow a functional context-specific approach.

Jamal tried to make the case that judicial writing draws upon many sources including past judgments, submissions and doctrine. It can be appropriate at times to adopt submissions, Jamal told Natalie Stechyson at Postmedia. “The challenge is to identify the circumstances where doing so gives the perception that the losing party hasn’t been heard – and that’s the difficult question for the Supreme Court Tuesday.”

The test asks whether the reasons given are sufficient to fulfil their various functions, namely:

  • to justify and explain the result
  • to tell the losing party why he or she lost (for the judge to give proof that he has heard and considered both sides' evidence and arguments and has not taken extraneous considerations into account)
  • to provide public accountability (to satisfy the public that justice is not only done, but seen to be done), and to permit effective appellate review (to allow for informed consideration of the grounds of appeal).

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Stepping down from the Supreme Court

By Yves Faguy November 13, 2012 13 November 2012

Philip Slayton at Canadian Lawyer wonders why so many Supreme Courts of Canada Justices retire before the mandatory retirement age of 75:

“Compare the Supreme Court of Canada to its American equivalent. Appointment to the Supreme Court of the United States is for life. More than half the judges appointed to the U.S. court since its creation have died in office. The last four SCOTUS judges to retire were Lewis Powell at age 80, John Paul Stevens at 90, Sandra Day O’Connor at 76, and David Souter at 70. Their average length of service on the court was almost 25 years. The average length of service of the last four Canadian Supreme Court justices to retire was just over 10 years.”

He offers up a few theories:

"When a judge leaves the Supreme Court prematurely, it is likely a combination of all these factors — tough job, dull town, attractive opportunities elsewhere, not much love in the air on Wellington Street — plus, no doubt, a few idiosyncratic personal considerations. But the question remains: Why don’t the justices of the Supreme Court of Canada who go early have the mettle of their American counterparts? Why don’t they stick it out?"

There’s no question that the job of a Supreme Court Justice is a tough slog, and personality clashes can be a factor. That said, by all accounts the McLachlin court has a reputation for being quite convivial, at least more so than the Lamer court ever was. As for the argument of more attractive opportunities elsewhere, who knows? It strikes me as a personal thing. Louise Arbour stepped down after a short five years on the SCC to become UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, but she was always known as someone more comfortable working in the field – a woman of action, so to speak.

In the end what differentiates our top court from the American one is our mandatory retirement rule. And given the 50-50 polarizing state of politics in the US, the members of the court simply have an added incentive to staying on longer: They dig in because the stakes are higher.

The Justice whose name is most often mentioned as the next to step down is Ruth Bader Ginsburg. The 79-year-old Clinton appointee has survived two bouts of cancer and has hinted she might retire before Obama’s mandate is up. Were that to happen, the Obama administration would have an opportunity to maintain the current ideological balance by appointing a new Justice that could be expected to vote with the minority liberal wing of the court. But should a Republican-appointed Justice, such as Antonin Scalia or Anthony Kennedy (both 76) take his leave, the president would have a rare opportunity to reposition that balance. Many court watchers think that is unlikely, if only because the two men are intent on securing their respective legacies, and would not care to be associated with such a shift. Headlines like these certainly feed that notion.

Contrast that with reactions in Canada’s papers to Harper’s five appointments to the Court. Sure, there’s been the odd story about Harper's chance at reshaping the court to align it with his conservative principles. But there has been little outcry over his choice of nominees, even from opposition critics. Of course nobody is suggesting that Harper isn’t trying to put a more conservative bent on a court that will continue to impact Canadians well after he has left office. But the mandatory retirement rule assures both right and left of a regular turnover of Supreme Court Justices, at least insofar has it is more likely to reflect shifts in electoral patterns. And for that reason alone, the pressure to stay on isn't quite the same.

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