The Power of Perspectives

The Canadian Bar Association

Mariane Gravelle

War crimes

Mladić’s genocide and war crimes conviction

By Mariane Gravelle November 23, 2017 23 November 2017

Mladić’s genocide and war crimes conviction

 

Former Commander of the Main Staff of the Bosnian Serb Army (VRS) Ratko Mladić, known as the “Butcher of Bosnia” has been convicted of one count of genocide and nine counts of crimes against humanity and violations of the laws or customs of war. The verdict, handed down by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), Trial Chamber I, carries a sentence of life imprisonment for Mladić.  Here is the statement from the ICTY:

Mladić was convicted of genocide and persecution, extermination, murder, and the inhumane act of forcible transfer in the area of Srebrenica in 1995; of persecution, extermination, murder, deportation and inhumane act of forcible transfer in municipalities throughout [Bosnia and Herzegovina, or “BiH”]; of murder, terror and unlawful attacks on civilians in Sarajevo; and of hostage-taking of UN personnel. He was acquitted of the charge of genocide in several municipalities in BiH in 1992.

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Immigration law

Confusion over post-graduate work permits

By Mariane Gravelle November 22, 2017 22 November 2017

Confusion over post-graduate work permits

What do you do when an institutional error threatens your livelihood and your right to stay in Canada? This is what many international students are now facing due, in part, to a processing error by Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) and to ambiguous language.

The CBC reports that students, notably in Alberta, Nova Scotia and Ontario, received the distressing news that they may not be eligible to receive a  post-graduate work permit (PGWP). PGWPs allow graduates of Canadian post-secondary institutions to work temporarily in Canada and gain experience that can help them gain their permanent residency.

While the PGWP program is federal, it is up to the provinces to designate eligible institutions and specific programs. The issue in this case stems from the fact that not all post-graduate institutions in Canada – and programs therein – render their graduates eligible for the permits.

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Competition law

What’s up with the bread price-fixing investigation?

By Mariane Gravelle November 7, 2017 7 November 2017

What’s up with the bread price-fixing investigation?

 

The story

Last week, the Competition Bureau and RCMP raided the offices of several companies in Canada’s grocery industry on suspicion of price-fixing of packaged bread products. According to the Competition Bureau, the raid was “based on evidence that there are reasonable grounds to believe that certain individuals and companies have engaged in activities contrary to the Competition Act.” As of yet, no charges have been laid.

The investigation was confirmed by grocery companies Metro and Loblaws. Said Loblaw Companies Limited

George Weston Limited (TSX:WN, "George Weston") and Loblaw Companies Limited (TSX:L, "Loblaw") today confirmed that they are aware of an industry-wide investigation by the Competition Bureau concerning a price-fixing scheme involving certain packaged bread products. George Weston and Loblaw are cooperating fully.

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What is cyber warfare, exactly?

By Mariane Gravelle November 1, 2017 1 November 2017

What is cyber warfare, exactly?


They’ve become commonplace nowadays: headlines announcing the spread of a virus or the hacking of an important website or institutional database. These occurrences can be debilitating for private and public sectors alike and, yet, no official law or treaty exists to regulate them. Given the speed at which technology develops, it is not surprising that existing frameworks and regulations do not account for all of the ways in which cyber warfare can be waged.

Increasingly sophisticated technology has made lives easier in many respects but has also given nefarious parties countless methods in which to disable services and institutions in ways that could seriously harm us. Now that so much of our lives are lived through the use of technology, it is reasonable to assume that an increasing amount of attacks will come by way of cyberspace – in fact, Forbes has deemed 2017 the year of cyber warfare.

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Resources

Judicial review of the Kinder Morgan Trans Mountain pipeline ends

By Mariane Gravelle October 17, 2017 17 October 2017

Judicial review of the Kinder Morgan Trans Mountain pipeline ends

 

The controversial Kinder Morgan pipeline expansion project – also known as the Trans Mountain Pipeline system – moves one step forward. Federal Court of Appeal proceedings in its most recent judicial review came to a close last week, leaving the parties awaiting a decision which could take several months to be issued.

A quick refresher

The Trans Mountain project is a proposed expansion of the existing Kinder Morgan pipeline running between Alberta and the west coast of British Columbia. The proposed expansion - which could so much as triple the system’s capacity – has been met with opposition from First Nations and environmental groups on the basis that it could potentially be detrimental to the environment. The pipeline project has also faced uncertainty due to provincial politics

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